The lung is one of the most complex organs of the human body. The treatment of its diseases requires a specialised form of surgery – thoracic surgery. An individualised treatment tailored to the specific disease and requirements of the patient is crucial to achieve excellent outcome. Especially in thoracic malignancies an interdisciplinary treatment approach is required to achieve optimal results. Minimal invasive access plays an important role in thoracic surgery. A clear advantage of less traumatic incisions is faster recovery and a reduced perioperative risk.